The Best Cat Litter Boxes (2024)

The research

  • Why you should trust us
  • How we picked and tested
  • Our pick: Frisco High Sided Cat Litter Box, Extra Large
  • Our pick: So Phresh High-Back Corner Grey Litter Box
  • Our pick: Catit Airsift Litter Pan Jumbo
  • Upgrade pick: Modkat Flip Litter Box
  • Budget pick: Creative Plastic Concepts Small Mixing Tub
  • Other good litter boxes
  • Sustainability and cat litter boxes
  • How often should I clean my litter box?
  • The competition
  • Sources

Why you should trust us

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (1)

In addition to being Wirecutter’s pets staff writer, I’ve lived with cats for more than 21 years. I have accompanied feline friends from kittenhood to adulthood to old age (and beyond), so I’ve owned litter boxes of all shapes and sizes.

Since this guide was first published, we’ve tested 27 litter boxes—a mix of open and covered options—including 14 new models for our latest update. We also interviewed veterinarians and animal behaviorists at three of the top-ranked veterinary schools in the country to learn about litter box features that benefit cats the most.

How we picked and tested

There’s no single box that will appeal to every cat, and while we understand aesthetics are important for some folks, you should always prioritize your cat’s needs and preferences: Aging cats might not be able to hop into a tall box like they once did; other cats might prefer the privacy of a covered option. If a box is hard to reach or placed far from rooms that they frequent, your cats may not be able or want to go there. And boxes placed near a loud appliance, like a washing machine, can be downright spooky for cats.

We considered five key criteria for boxes that keep most felines happy and healthy, as well as things that make maintenance a bit easier for humans. We stuck to simple litter boxes and avoided gimmicky models, including boxes that roll to sift litter (a design that we’ve found often malfunctions).

  • Size: Many experts on this topic recommend getting as large a litter box as possible. Before they go, cats need enough room to turn around in circles, as they’re preparing the site and “sniffing for a clean place to go,” said veterinarian Rebecca Ruch-Gallie. After finishing their business, they circle again to cover up the evidence. “Kind of like a person just checking in the toilet before you flush it,” said Dr. Laurie Bergman, a veterinary behaviorist. A smaller box may be fine for a kitten or a very little cat, but since medium and large cats need more room to turn around and dig comfortably, we focused on bigger boxes.
  • Open or covered: Size, cleanliness, and location have more to do with a cat’s litter box preference than whether it’s covered or not (PDF), so we tested both styles to provide options. A covered box helps hide the smell and sight of waste, but that’s not necessarily a good thing since it can also make it easier to forget daily scooping. If you choose a covered box, make sure it has plenty of ventilation, and don’t slack on cleaning. Your cats might endure the odors you’ve been spared, but they don’t like the smell any more than you do.
  • Shape: A good litter box should have high sides and a low entryway. High walls can protect your home from high-peeing cats, keeping their urine inside the box, where it belongs. And while a low entryway might let some extra litter escape, it also allows cats of all ages and sizes to get in and out more easily. Older cats can develop arthritis and joint pain, so taking larger steps is painful. Some tracking is inevitable, but a high-sided box and a good litter mat can reduce the amount of errant litter particles you find in the rest of your home.
  • Quality materials: A good litter box is made of durable materials that won’t snap under a little weight, and it can handle sharp claws digging into it multiple times a day for many years. We stress-tested every box by lifting and moving each one several times while it was loaded with roughly 20 pounds of litter (enough to provide a few inches of depth in each box). We also tried to bend and break each one with our bare hands.
  • Easy to scoop and clean: The best boxes are smooth enough not to collect clumps, with edges and corners that can be cleared with a flat scoop. We scooped clumps of simulated cat urine made from a mixture of water and ammonium chloride, and we dismissed any boxes that had ridges, divots, or crevices that made them harder to clean. We also dumped 20 pounds of litter from each box into a kitchen garbage bag, as well as into a small trash can, to see how hard it was to lift, maneuver, and pour from each one without making a mess.

Of course, if your cat uses their current box without any problems—and you’re fine with how it looks and how easy it is to scoop and clean—there’s no need to buy a new one.



Our pick: Frisco High Sided Cat Litter Box, Extra Large

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (2)

Our pick

Frisco High Sided Cat Litter Box, Extra Large

A classic open box with high walls and a low entrance

Simple and inexpensive, this litter box has an accessible entryway, high sides to keep messes in check, and a smooth interior for easy cleaning.

Buying Options

$27 from Chewy

Don’t let the simplicity of the Frisco High Sided Cat Litter Box fool you. One of our picks since 2020, the extra-large version of this box has stood the test of time and cats. It has all of the features (large, with a low entryway) that experts recommend for keeping your cat happy, as well as those that are helpful to humans. The high sides help prevent litter and urine from getting out of the box, the smooth surfaces are easy to scoop and clean, and it’s relatively inexpensive.

It’s large enough for diligent diggers. The Frisco box is one of the largest rectangular models we’ve found, with ample space for a cat to bury multiple treasures.

It has high walls, to keep messes contained, and the low entrance provides easy access. High-sided litter boxes can be great if your cat flings debris all over the place while they’re digging or burying. The Frisco box’s walls are tall enough to help contain litter scatter and keep most high-peeing cats from overshooting the box. Unlike some high-sided boxes that are tall all the way around, the Frisco box has a low entryway, so stepping in and out is easier for small cats and those with mobility issues.

The box is simple to scoop, dump, and clean. The Frisco box’s flat bottom and rounded corners make it simple to pass a scoop through without catching on any interior divots or ridges. This box has side handles, so lifting is easy for most people, even when it’s full of litter. We were able to dump the litter into a trash can using a corner as a spout. But it wasn’t a perfect system, and litter sometimes slid out too quickly and scattered. For people who are unable to lift a loaded litter box, this box’s shorter end can be squeezed into the mouth of a 13-gallon kitchen garbage bag on the floor and dumped out that way.

Flaws but not dealbreakers

Some online reviewers have complained that there are no liners that fit the Frisco box because it’s so large. But we don’t recommend using single-use plastic liners because cat claws can slice through them during digging, thereby sullying your box and defeating their intended purpose. Liners also create more plastic waste that goes straight to the landfill.

The Frisco box’s plastic isn’t as durable as the plastic used in some of the other boxes we tested. During our stress tests, the Frisco box cracked once, at the entrance lip. But this crack, while ugly, didn’t affect the function of the box, and it still held strong when we lifted it with 20 pounds of litter inside. So long as you’re not hurling it around, the Frisco litter box should hold up just fine with normal use.

We think the walls on this box are a great height for most cats, but if they're too high for yours, we recommend a low-walled box, like our budget pick. And if they’re not high enough to contain your cat’s messes, a covered box might be a better option.


Size: 24 by 18 inches
Wall height: 10 inches
Entry height: 5.6 inches

Our pick: So Phresh High-Back Corner Grey Litter Box

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (4)

Our pick

So Phresh High-Back Corner Grey Litter Box

A corner box with lots of room to bury and dig

This litter box can fit in the corner of most rooms, and it’s larger than our other open-box picks. But that also means you need to use more litter to keep it full.

The So Phresh High-Back Corner Grey Litter Box fits seamlessly in the corner of a room. And due to its open, triangular shape, cats can turn around easily, so they have tons of room to dig and bury. This box’s high walls help contain overspray and tracking, and its low entryway lets cats of most ages and sizes climb in and out with ease.

It’s big enough for cats to comfortably make circles, with high walls and a low entrance. The So Phresh box is spacious enough to accommodate big cats like Maine coons, and the shape allows cats to turn around easily. Like the Frisco litter box, the So Phresh box has 10-inch-high walls, which give high-peeing cats a surface to spray on and help reduce tracking. The box’s low entryway makes it accessible for kittens and senior cats.

It’s easy to deep-clean. Like all of our picks, the So Phresh box has a smooth interior. So it’s simple to scoop up all forms of cat waste, though because this box is really large, it takes a bit longer to rake through than our other picks. The curved tip of the triangle makes a great spout, so you can funnel litter into a bag or trash can without too much spillover. And its light weight and handles make lifting and moving this box manageable, even when it’s full.

The plastic is strong and sturdy. During our stress tests, when we bent and manipulated the box, the plastic whitened in some spots, but it didn’t break. And this box transported 20 pounds of litter from room to room without bending or cracking.

Flaws but not dealbreakers

The extra space in the So Phresh box is great for cats who need more room to maneuver, but it also makes the box heavier to lift when it’s full. Every expert we spoke with recommended getting the largest box possible, but this one might be too large for some people’s homes.


Size: 26.25 by 21.5 inches
Wall height: 10 inches
Entry height: 6 inches



Our pick: Catit Airsift Litter Pan Jumbo

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (6)

Our pick

Catit Airsift Litter Pan Jumbo

A spacious covered box for cats who prefer privacy

This roomy covered box helps to keep cat pee inside, and it can minimize tracking.

Buying Options

$43 from Chewy

$47 from Amazon

If your cat prefers to use a covered box, we recommend the Catit Airsift Litter Pan Jumbo. It has a roomy interior, and the hood and pan snap tightly together, keeping urine contained for cats who spray like a fire hose (video).

This box has tons of space. The Catit’s pan is bigger than the Frisco’s. So the Catit box gives most cats ample room to turn around inside without cramping their style. As is true of our other picks, this box has a low entryway, making it easy for most cats to get in and out.

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (8)

Cat pee stays inside the box, where it belongs. I used an older version of this box for years in my home, and it stood up to heavy-duty use by two prolific littermates—including one stubborn, high-peeing cat with a urine spray that no uncovered box could contain, no matter how high the walls. The Catit’s hood wraps over the pan’s rim, so urine won’t get caught in between and can’t seep out the other side.

The hood is versatile. The top of the Catit has a front flap that flips open, allowing easy access for scooping without having to remove the entire hood. It also gives your cat more space if they prefer a little extra headroom. And it has a compartment that holds an included filter pad, but cleaning the pan and the hood regularly is still the best practice for controlling odors. The hood also features a lip at the entryway that you can hook a bag onto, serving as an anchor so you don’t spill litter while scooping.

Flaws but not dealbreakers

This box comes with a clear plastic door flap, which we recommend removing. Some cats might not understand how to push it open (mine didn’t), and it can trap odors inside the box.

We previously dismissed the older version of this litter box because our testers had some issues with the latches that hold the hood and pan together. In recent testing with the updated model—and in my years of personal experience with the older version—the latches could sometimes be finicky to open and close, but they worked well most of the time. Online, there are other complaints that the plastic of the hood on the newer version is thinner than on the old model, and that it breaks more easily. We didn’t find this to be a problem in our testing, but it’s something to be aware of.

The handle on top of the hood could trick users into thinking they can pick up this litter box as if it were a suitcase when it’s full. Doing that, we learned the hard way, will almost certainly break the latches. The handle is there simply to help lift the hood off the pan during scooping and cleaning.

Lastly, the Airsift version of this litter box is relatively new. So many online retailers have not fully updated their listings to reflect the updates, and they list it under the previous name, the “Catit Jumbo Hooded Cat Litter Pan.” We’ve reached out to the company to confirm that customers will receive the new version when they place an order, and we will update this information when we hear back.


Size: 22.4 by 19.7 inches
Total height: 18.3 inches
Entry height: 6.75 inches

Upgrade pick: Modkat Flip Litter Box

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (9)

Upgrade pick

Modkat Flip Litter Box

A sleek and versatile covered box

This good-looking covered litter box has a folding magnetic lid, so it’s easy to open and clean.

Buying Options

$90 from Amazon

An upgrade pick since 2017, the Modkat Flip Litter Box is a good-looking covered box made of thicker, sturdier plastic than that of most models we tested. If your cat routinely likes to stage an archaeological dig in their litter box, the high sides should prevent messes, and this box can contain the pee of most cats who aim high.

Modkat’s replaceable tarp liners are easy to clean, and the box comes with a decent plastic scoop that hangs from the rim.

It’s easy on the eyes. If your litter box is going to be out in the open, especially if you live in a small space, it may be worth getting one that’s a little nicer to look at. The Modkat box comes in white, black, or gray, and it has a clean, minimalist style.

The versatile lid makes scooping painless. The Modkat’s lid attaches to the box with magnets at the front and folding midpoint, as well as with plastic hinges at the back, so the whole thing can be folded out of the way. With this litter box, you don’t have to remove a giant cover and set it on the floor, as is sometimes necessary with the Catit Airsift Litter Pan Jumbo. And if your cat needs a high-walled box but prefers more space up top, the lid can be left half or fully open.

It is one of the easiest models to clean and dump. Modkat’s custom-fitted tarp liners are thick enough to stand up to sharp claws, and they last for several months. The liner was easy to scoop from, and when we emptied it, not much stuck to the material. This box was also easier to lift and dump litter out of than any others we tested. The liners hang inside the box, from grommets that hook at each top corner, and affixing a liner or changing it involves very little fuss.

Flaws but not dealbreakers

The Modkat box’s price is hard to overlook. Plus, the tarpaulin liners, which currently cost around $30 for a three-pack, are an ongoing expense. Although they don’t create as much waste as traditional, single-use liners, and they do help prolong the life of the box, they still end up in a landfill when they’ve outlived their usefulness.

Modkat recommends replacing the liner every three months, but we’ve found it can last twice as long. A Wirecutter staffer who has used the Modkat box for years said their liners have showed no signs of wear after over six months of use, and they said they simply do an occasional quick wipe-down when changing litter. Modkat also offers a pack of six recycled paperboard liners (currently $25). But they have to be changed monthly, and it seems like they would get smelly quickly. Some Amazon reviewers have used the Modkat without the liner. This is a good option, as long as you’re okay with cleaning the entire box regularly.

Lastly, several users have complained about the liners going out of stock. They’re available on Modkat’s website as of this writing, but it’s something to keep an eye on.


Size: 20.5 by 15.75 inches
Total height: 16.8 inches
Entry height: 6.75 inches



Budget pick: Creative Plastic Concepts Small Mixing Tub

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (11)

Budget pick

Creative Plastic Concepts Small Mixing Tub

A cheap mixing pan that can handle tough chores

Marketed as a drywall mud pan, this low-walled option works well for kittens and cats who have limited mobility.

Buying Options

$8 from Lowe's

Sometimes the best litter box is not a litter box at all. The Creative Plastic Concepts Small Mixing Tub is cheap, sturdy, and enormous. Made for mixing concrete and other home-improvement projects, this container is a great option for cats who need extra space. But since it has low walls only, it won’t work for high-peeing cats or those who fling litter around like it’s confetti.

It’s one of the largest options we recommend. The Creative Plastic Concepts tub has zero frills, but what it lacks in flash, it makes up for in sheer size. The low walls are a liability for high-peeing cats, but if your cat squats to pee or just likes having multiple easy-access points, this open box has them covered.

The smooth, sloping bottom is easy to clean. Since this tub has no divots or crevices, a litter scoop will slide right through it with ease, and it’s a cinch to wipe clean with a soft sponge. The outer ridge lip makes a natural handle anywhere you grab it, which is helpful when you’re dumping out litter.

The plastic is tough and sturdy. Most other boxes we looked at bent at least a little during our stress tests, but this tub’s thick black plastic hardly budged. If it’s tough enough for wet cement, it should be able to withstand the rigors of litter box duty.

It’s the cheapest box we recommend. Even if you’re just using this tub as a litter box until your kittens grow bigger, the sub-$10 price tag makes it worth it. Plus, it can be repurposed to catch oil drips from your car or store greasy tools in your garage.

Flaws but not dealbreakers

The Creative Plastic Concepts tub’s low walls are useful for certain cats, but litter will also escape. And the box is so large that you might need to use two litter mats to catch all of the debris. Similarly, the walls don’t hold all of the litter back when you’re dumping, so it’s more difficult to direct the flow of litter out of a corner without some spilling over.

The tub arrived with a small barcode stuck to the center of the pan, and it was a pain to remove. It’s not something you’d want to leave there since it would get soaked with smelly cat waste and bacteria. When we finally got it off, it left behind a sticky residue, but it finally vanished after we cleaned it with Goo Gone.

Some reviewers have noted inconsistencies in their orders, saying they got a different, flimsier version under the same listing. So if you place an order, we recommend double-checking that you received the correct one.


Size: 26 by 20 inches
Total height: 6 inches, all the way around

Other good litter boxes

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (13)

If you want an attractive open litter box and are willing to pay more for it: The is a high-quality open litter box with a sleek, modern look. But it’s one of the priciest boxes we considered (currently around $200). The box comes with cleverly integrated holders for the included scoop and dustpan, making cleanup convenient. These holders are lined with a removable plastic basket, which can be dumped and washed separately so it doesn’t collect crud. And if you want to swap out the included plastic scoop with one of our picks, the iPrimio Non-Stick Litter Scooper fits perfectly into the designated slot.

The Cove’s thick, sturdy plastic cleans easily, but it also makes this one of the heaviest models we tested. The optional, 8-inch-tall semi-clear Shelter slides neatly onto the box’s opening, bringing this litter box’s total height to 14.5 inches—tall enough to guard your walls from errant cat pee and litter, but not so tall that your cat can’t keep an eye on their surroundings. Like the hood on the Catit litter box, the Shelter overlaps both sides of the box’s edge, to keep urine from getting trapped in between or leaking out over the sides. (Without the Shelter, the pan itself costs about $150, but we don’t recommend using it solo due to its low walls.)

Size: 26 by 16 inches (litter area: 20 by 14 inches)
Wall height: 14.5 inches with Shelter (6.5 inches without Shelter)
Entry height: 6.5 inches

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If you want to avoid plastic and can afford a buy-it-for-life option: The Less Litter Box L-5 isn’t actually a box at all. It’s a sturdy, cylindrical stainless steel container that’s partially made by hand and custom tooling, and that contributes to the eye-popping price tag (currently nearly $440). We know how absurd that sounds for a poop bucket, but hear us out.

The Less Litter Box’s circular shape and massive interior dimensions (the one we tested was 19.75 inches in diameter, the most popular of six sizes, according to the company) should give most cats ample room to spin around and take care of business. Since many cats like to move in circles before and after their bathroom routine, this box is designed to allow for their full range of motion.

The cylinder’s 17-inch-high walls help keep most nasty messes contained, but if your cat needs an even taller and wider open box, Less Litter offers a larger option. On all models, the entryway allows most cats to step in and out with ease.

The Less Litter Box is made of a thick stainless steel, the same grade often used for marine applications. It resists corrosion and won’t trap bacteria like some plastics. But it’s very heavy. At 16 pounds, the L-5 was more difficult to lift and dump than any box we tested. The company suggests setting it on a chair or toilet and tilting it from there. That definitely made emptying this model easier, but it required quite a bit of muscle—yet another reason why the Less Litter Box is not for everyone.

Still, some people overlook this inconvenience for the benefit of never having to buy another plastic litter box. “This litter box is going to outlive all of us,” said Jackie Ki, one of the company’s founders. She said she created this box to reduce the waste of continually replacing cruddy or damaged plastic litter boxes. “Don’t come back,” said Ki. “We have nothing else.”

If your cat pees high, leaving urine too long on the walls without cleaning may result in stains, but the company said washing with Bar Keepers Friend will remove them. There’s currently a two-month lag time for most orders, so if you don’t mind paying a lot and waiting a bit, this litter box is a great, albeit heavy, option.


Size: 19.75 inches in diameter
Wall height: 17 inches
Entry height: 7 inches

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (15)

If you want to save money and customize your litter box: One of the cheapest options is to DIY your own litter box. An inexpensive storage bin can be easily modified if you and your cat need particular features, such as much higher walls or a lower entryway. But this method also has its drawbacks: Many storage bins have ridges and crevices at the bottom, so they can be hard to scoop. Underbed storage bins can have sides that are too low, and taller bins can be difficult to smoothly cut down to size. Plus, for anyone who needs to keep a litter box in the living room or other public area, this isn’t the best-looking option.

Still, a storage bin is a good, inexpensive option to try, and there are many tutorials (video) online to guide you through the process (video).



Sustainability and cat litter boxes

When a plastic litter box hits the landfill, it will never disappear. So once you find one your cat enjoys using, we recommend sticking with it for the long haul. For plastic alternatives, we considered two stainless steel boxes for this guide, the iPrimio and the Less Litter. We think the Less Litter is a great eco-friendly option, but as we detailed, it’s heavy and requires a significant financial investment. We dismissed the iPrimio for several faults.

You can also find litter boxes made out of cardboard, but they need to be thrown out every few days or weeks, which gets expensive and still creates waste. Any disposable litter boxes described as compostable need to meet FTC requirements. And they shouldn’t be composted if they’ve been used, since any remaining animal waste contains bacteria and possibly parasites. (In our guide to dog poop bags, we touch on why compost and animal feces shouldn't mix.)

Finally, if you need to upgrade your existing litter box, consider repurposing the older one in your home. Once cleaned, these plastic bins can work for plenty of home-improvement projects. You can also call local animal shelters to see if they’ll accept old litter boxes as donations.

How often should I clean my litter box?

If a litter box gets too dirty, your cat may take the show on the road and eliminate elsewhere in your home. The Humane Society recommends that you scoop litter at least once a day. And you should change litter completely and wash the pan at least every two weeks. The ASPCA advises replacing the litter and rinsing out the box with soap and warm water once a week.



The competition

We used to recommend the Litter Genie Cat Litter Box because its smooth interior and easy-grip handles made cleanup easier and virtually mess-free, compared with regular litter boxes. But over the long term, many reviewers have complained of this box cracking after a few months of normal use.

The iPrimio Enclosed Sides Stainless Steel XL Cat Litter Box looked promising at first, but the low-quality stainless steel showed scratching from claws and a metal scoop almost immediately. The plastic enclosure adds 6 inches to the walls, bringing the total height to 12 inches, but it doesn’t form a tight seal to the lower pan, and it gets knocked loose easily. Even worse, it allows liquid to escape through to the other side.

Tuft & Paw recently released a simplified version of the Cove, the Cubby. It’s lighter than the Cove and has a lip that makes it easier to carry for cleaning. But it lacks the scoop and dustpan holders that make the Cove special. If you like the look of it and don’t mind the price, it’s a great option.

The good-looking Modkat XL Litter Box is available in white, gray, or black, but it’s expensive and one of the heaviest plastic boxes we tested, second only to the . It uses Modkat’s novel liner system to make cleaning easier. But the internal frame that holds up the liners got in our way when we were scooping and often got knocked loose. Ultimately, we preferred the less expensive Modkat Flip—it was easier to scoop, and the flip-top cover was less finicky than the XL’s.

The Catit Cat Litter Large Pan is a decent-size open box, but it comes with an overhanging detachable rim that is meant to help minimize tracking. In our testing, the rim was tricky to remove and to reattach properly. And when we tried to take it off for deep cleaning, a small piece of the plastic broke off at one of the attachment points.

The Frisco Multi-Function Covered Cat Litter Box, Jumbo is a decked-out storage tub with a door cut-out, handles, and a hinged cover that can be removed if needed. But it’s heavy, the plastic is flimsy, and the cover fell out of its hinges every time we opened it.

The pan of the IRIS Large Shielded Cat Litter Pan With Scoop is sturdy, but the removable shield falls off easily. This was the smallest box we tested, and while it might work for kittens or very small cats, the inner dimensions are just too cramped for most adult cats.

The Petmate Open Litter Pan is slightly bigger than our Frisco pick, but the entryway is a little taller, so it’s harder for cats to get into, and it has a few grooves in the pan, so it’s harder to clean.

The Petmate Top Entry is basically a big storage container with a hole cut in the top, but the lid doesn’t stay secure, and its tiny air holes and grooves are troublesome to clean. The high sides along all four walls don’t offer easy access for scooping and cleaning, so the process is messier than with our picks.

The AmazonBasics No-Mess Hooded Cat Litter Box is also a curved rectangle—so it takes up almost as much space as the Catit Airsift Cat Pan Jumbo. But this box has less usable internal space, and it has several recent complaints related to faulty latches.

The Modkat Top-Entry Litter Box is well designed and well made, but at 16 inches square, it’s one of the smallest boxes we tried. And it leaves just one position—head up near the hole—for cats to comfortably stink up the room.

We tried two different sifting boxes, the Luuup and another model that has since been discontinued. Sifting litter boxes have a built-in plastic mesh tray to catch clumps and waste, which ideally means you don’t need a separate litter scoop at all. Both boxes were just okay to use, and ultimately the designs didn’t make litter duty any more convenient.

This article was edited by Joshua Lyon and Harry Sawyers.


  1. Leticia Fanucchi, DVM, PhD, clinical assistant professor in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Oklahoma State University, video interview, October 16, 2023

  2. Laurie Bergman, VMD, DACVB, veterinary behaviorist, Hickory Veterinary and Specialty Hospital, phone interview, October 12, 2023

  3. Jackie Ki, owner/founder, Less Litter, phone interview, August 30, 2023

  4. Rebecca Ruch-Gallie, DVM, associate professor in the Department of Clinical Sciences and service chief for community practice, Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, phone interview, June 12, 2023

  5. Melissa Bain, DVM, professor of clinical animal behavior, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, phone interview, June 5, 2023

  6. Bruce Kornreich, DVM, PhD, director of the Cornell Feline Health Center at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, phone interview, June 16, 2023

  7. Bre Phelan, founder & president, Felius Cat Café, video interview, June 13, 2023

  8. Daniel “DQ” Quagliozzi, cat behavior consultant at Go, Cat, Go!, email interview, September 17, 2017

  9. Tony Wang, owner of San Diego’s The Cat Café, interview, August 25, 2017

The Best Cat Litter Boxes (2024)
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